It is a rapidly acting drug, targeting the asexual stage. The mortality rate has increased along with the spread of malaria. p H of food vacuole of plasmodium specie is acidic while chloroquine is a weak base, leading to change in p H of food vacuole. More effective for long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as devoid of long term adverse drug reactions, especially eye changes. Use of chloroquine is declining recently due to the fact that most strains have become resistant. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes. If we want to avoid relapse, Primaquine is used to eradicate tissue schizontal activity. Previously used for chemoprophylaxis, now due to development of resistance, chloroquine is not used. Anti-amoebic effect –infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica) Amebic liver abscess (as chloroquine is concentrated in the liver) because: Used for long time for rheumatoid arthritis, but because of associated ocular adverse effects, precaution is taken to have eye examination every 4 to 6 month to check retinal changes. Chloroquine interaction Glaucoma and plaquenil Plaquenil and dementia Mechanism of action Chloroquine basic concentrates in parasite food vacuole acidic. Prevent heme polymerization into hemozoin causing heme accumulation toxic to parasite. Drug complex with heme disrupt cell membrane function. Other mechanism include intercalating of parasite DNA, DNA synthesis inhibition. 7. Chloroquine enters the red blood cell, inhibiting the parasite cell and digestive vacuole by simple diffusion. Chloroquine then becomes protonated to CQ2+, as the digestive vacuole is known to be acidic pH 4.7; chloroquine then cannot leave by diffusion. Antimalarial mode of action and resistance. Chloroquine acts exclusively in the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasites. The antimalarial mechanism of action from chloroquine has not been fully elucidated. Many theories have been developed to elucidate the chloroquine mechanism of action, including DNA binding and inhibition of various enzymes and/or transporters. Plasmodium develops, multiplies and transforms by utilizing hemoglobin of human erythrocytes. Inhibits phospholipase A2 (used rheumatoid arthritis), chemotaxis is decreased, resulting in decreased proliferation of antigen. Primarily highly effective against febrile illness, relief is quickly achieved within 24 hours. CRTF Another gene involved is chloroquine resistance transporter factor (CRTF) 4. When administered, patient becomes afebrile within 24-48 hours. Resistance has developed in Afghanistan and Khyber Pathtunkhua. Mode of action of chloroquine Mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine as an antirheumatic., Chloroquine - Wikipedia Hydroxychloroquine related rash on external genitaliaBrazil nuts and plaquenilAverage cost of plaquenilChloroquine eea1 Mechanism of action of chloroquine. Entry into the parasitized RBCs; 1. Accumulation in food vacuole of the parasite- role of pH gradient chloroquine trapping Affects asexual cycle of plasmodium specie. Once administered, it has to enter site of action. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes. Chloroquine – howMed. Chloroquine Modes of action of an undervalued drug.. Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine.. Each class of antibacterial drugs has a unique mode of action the way in which a drug affects microbes at the cellular level, and these are summarized in Figure 1 and Table 1. Figure 1. There are several classes of antibacterial compounds that are typically classified based on their bacterial target. Chloroquine Mode of Action Science The drug chloroquine is bactericidal for Bacillus megaterium ; it inhibits DNA and RNA biosynthesis and produces rapid degradation of ribosomes and. A brief presentation of chloroquine, its history and its future in the medical industry. Mechanism of Action of Fluoroquinolones - Duration. Elsevier India 9,452 views.