Resistance to currently available antimalarial drugs has been confirmed in only two of the four human malaria parasite species, first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Chloroquine and zambia Chloroquine for dogs The molecular mechanism of resistance development to chloroquine is still not well understood. It is critical that its mechanism of action be well understood as it is a safe drug, well tolerated in the body and it is further moderately affordable 6. Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. Although resistance to these drugs tends to be much less widespread geographically, in some areas of the world, the impact of multi-drug resistant malaria can be extensive. Has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Mechanism of chloroquine resistance On the Mechanism of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum., Effects of chloroquine on viral infections an old drug. Plaquenil side effects mayo clinic The clinical usefulness of chloroquine, and in some recent cases of quinine as well, has been much reduced by the evolution and spread of chloroquine resistant malaria parasites. The mechanism of resistance involves a reduced accumulation of the drug, although again the mechanism involved is controversial. Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in.. Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Opens a new door to understanding the nature of chloroquine resistance. Here, I shall build on several recent reviews on the mechanism of chloroquine activity and resistance. and attempt to put the new findings into the context of our current understanding of chloroquine resistance development. Efflux of chloroquine from Plasmodium falciparum mechanism of chloroquine resistance Science Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum accumulate significantly less chloroquine than. Mechanisms of Drug Action and Resistance Focus on Antimalarials Chemotherapy is the primary means of treating protozoan infections. Successful chemotherapy depends in a large part on the ability to exploit metabolic differences between the pathogen and the host.