Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Chloroquine pretreatment degradation Urinary side effects of hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine pericarditis Chloroquine is the ONLY drug used for P. vivax malaria, because resistance to chloroquine in P. vivax malaria is almost unknown in most countries. In most parts of the world, P. falciparum is resistant to chloroquine, and the recommended treatment is artemisinin bases combinations. Changing the treatment policy for Plasmodium vivax. Most countries endemic for vivax malaria recommend chloroquine or ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated P. also include primaquine to eliminate latent liver stage infections and prevent relapse a method known as radical cure. Persons acquiring P. vivax infections in Papua New Guinea or Indonesia should initially be treated with a regimen recommended for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections. The treatment regimens for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections are quinine sulfate plus doxycycline or tetracycline, or, atovaquone-proguanil, or artemether. Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. Chloroquine resistant vivax malaria treatment Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses, WHO Responding to antimalarial drug resistance Plaquenil warningsHydroxy-chloroquine 200 mg without prescriptionPlaquenil and blindness What is P. vivax radical cure? Radical cure requires the administration of a combination therapy blood stage treatment in combination with liver stage treatment to clear all parasites. Blood stage treatment Chloroquine, or in areas where chloroquine resistance is prevalent, artemisinin-based combination therapy ACT to clear blood stages. Radical cure PVIVAX - Malaria. CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States.. Chloroquine Resistant Plasmodium vivax In Vitro.. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA Chloroquine resistance Chloroquine is ineffective in almost all malaria endemic countries In India chloroquine resistance was first detected in 1973 in Assam. Severe in northeast and southeastern regions of India with high morbidity and mortality. Chloroquine-resistant malaria is exactly what it sounds like—particular types of malaria which are not cured by treatment with chloroquine. Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. In addition, any of the regimens listed for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria may be used for the treatment of chloroquine-sensitive. P. falciparum. malaria. Prompt initiation of an effective regimen is vitally important, so using any one of the effective regimens that is readily available would be the preferred strategy.